Die Verwaltungsgliederung der Slowakei unterlag während der Geschichte. Die Slowakische Republik ist ein Binnenland in Mitteleuropa. Sie entstand am 1. Januar durch die Teilung der Tschechoslowakei. Die Verfassung der. Der Slowakische Staat (slowakisch Slovenský Juli Slowakischer Staat (slowakisch Slovenský štát);
The inhabitants of the area manufactured arms, shields, jewellery, dishes, and statues. During Hallstatt times, monumental burial mounds were erected in western Slovakia, with princely equipment consisting of richly decorated vessels, ornaments and decorations.
The burial rites consisted entirely of cremation. The common people were buried in flat urnfield cemeteries. A special role was given to weaving and the production of textiles.
The local power of the "Princes" of the Hallstatt period disappeared in Slovakia during the last century before the middle of first millennium BC, after strife between the Scytho -Thracian people and locals, resulting in abandonment of the old hill-forts.
Relatively depopulated areas soon caught interest of emerging Celtic tribes, who advanced from the south towards the north, following the Slovak rivers, peacefully integrating into the remnants of the local population.
Biatecs , silver coins with inscriptions in the Latin alphabet, represent the first known use of writing in Slovakia.
This culture is often connected with the Celtic tribe mentioned in Roman sources as Cotini. Such Roman border settlements were built on the present area of Rusovce , currently a suburb of Bratislava.
The military fort was surrounded by a civilian vicus and several farms of the villa rustica type. The name of this settlement was Gerulata. The military fort had an auxiliary cavalry unit, approximately horses strong, modelled after the Cananefates.
In , a Turko-Mongol tribal confederacy, the Avars , conducted its own invasion into the Middle Danube region. The Avars occupied the lowlands of the Pannonian Plain , and established an empire dominating the Carpathian Basin.
In , the Slavic population living in the western parts of Pannonia seceded from their empire after a revolution led by Samo, a Frankish merchant.
The Slavic tribes settled in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th century. A Slavic state known as the Principality of Nitra arose in the 8th century and its ruler Pribina had the first known Christian church of the territory of present-day Slovakia consecrated by Together with neighbouring Moravia , the principality formed the core of the Great Moravian Empire from Cyril developed the first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel into the Old Church Slavonic language.
Rastislav was also preoccupied with the security and administration of his state. Numerous fortified castles built throughout the country are dated to his reign and some of them e.
During his reign, the Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent, when not only present-day Moravia and Slovakia but also present-day northern and central Hungary , Lower Austria , Bohemia , Silesia , Lusatia , southern Poland and northern Serbia belonged to the empire, but the exact borders of his domains are still disputed by modern authors.
He also named the German cleric Wiching the Bishop of Nitra. Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Eastern Francia , Great Moravia lost most of its peripheral territories.
In the meantime, the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes, possibly having suffered defeat from the similarly nomadic Pechenegs , left their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains ,  invaded the Carpathian Basin and started to occupy the territory gradually around Some historians put this year as the date of the break-up of the Great Moravian Empire, due to the Hungarian conquest; other historians take the date a little bit earlier to Great Moravia left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe.
The Glagolitic script and its successor Cyrillic were disseminated to other Slavic countries, charting a new path in their sociocultural development.
The administrative system of Great Moravia may have influenced the development of the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. Following the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire at the turn of the 10th century, the Hungarians annexed the territory comprising modern Slovakia.
After their defeat on the Lech River they abandoned their nomadic ways; they settled in the centre of the Carpathian valley, adopted Christianity and began to build a new state — the Hungarian kingdom.
From the 11th century, when the territory inhabited by the Slavic-speaking population of Danubian Basin was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, until , when the Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed, the territory of modern Slovakia was an integral part of the Hungarian state.
A significant decline in the population resulted from the invasion of the Mongols in and the subsequent famine. However, in medieval times the area of the present-day Slovakia was characterised by German and Jewish immigration, burgeoning towns, construction of numerous stone castles, and the cultivation of the arts.
It become part of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy, marking the beginning of a new era. The territory comprising modern Slovakia, then known as Upper Hungary , became the place of settlement for nearly two-thirds of the Magyar nobility fleeing the Turks and far more linguistically and culturally Hungarian than it was before.
Upper Hungary, modern Slovakia, became the site of frequent wars between Catholics in the west territory and Protestants in the east, also against Turks, the frontier was on a constant state of military alert and heavily fortified by castles and citadels often manned by Catholic German and Slovak troops on the Habsburg side.
By , Slovakia was not spared the Counter-Reformation , which brought the majority of its population from Lutheranism back to Roman Catholicism.
The Ottoman wars , rivalry between Austria and Transylvania , and the frequent insurrections against the Habsburg Monarchy inflicted a great deal of devastation, especially in the rural areas.
As the Turks withdrew from Hungary in the late 17th century, the importance of the territory comprising modern Slovakia decreased, although Pressburg retained its status as the capital of Hungary until , when it was transferred back to Buda.
During the revolution of —49 , the Slovaks supported the Austrian Emperor , hoping for independence from the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy , but they failed to achieve their aim.
Thereafter relations between the nationalities deteriorated see Magyarization , culminating in the secession of Slovakia from Hungary after World War I.
In , during the chaos following the break-up of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia was formed with numerous Germans and Hungarians within the newly set borders.
In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European state. It provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities and remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period.
During the Interwar period , democratic Czechoslovakia was allied with France, and also with Romania and Yugoslavia Little Entente ; however, the Locarno Treaties of left East European security open.
Both Czechs and Slovaks enjoyed a period of relative prosperity. The minority Germans came to accept their role in the new country and relations with Austria were good.
Yet the Great Depression caused a sharp economic downturn, followed by political disruption and insecurity in Europe.
Thereafter Czechoslovakia came under continuous pressure from the revisionist governments of Germany and Hungary. Eventually this led to the Munich Agreement of September , which allowed Nazi Germany to partially dismember the country by occupying what was called the Sudetenland , a region with a German-speaking majority and bordering Germany and Austria.
The remainder of "rump" Czechoslovakia was renamed Czecho-Slovakia and included a greater degree of Slovak political autonomy.
After the Munich Agreement and its Vienna Award , Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia and allow the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary or Poland unless independence was declared.
Meanwhile, the Czechoslovak government-in-exile sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, and to return the Republic to its boundaries.
The government operated from London and it was ultimately considered, by those countries that recognised it, the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia throughout the Second World War.
As part of the Holocaust in Slovakia , 75, Jews out of 80, who remained on Slovak territory after Hungary had seized southern regions were deported and taken to German death camps.
After it became clear that the Soviet Red Army was going to push the Nazis out of eastern and central Europe, an anti-Nazi resistance movement launched a fierce armed insurrection, known as the Slovak National Uprising , near the end of summer A bloody German occupation and a guerilla war followed.
Germans and their local collaborators completely destroyed 93 villages and massacred thousands of civilians, often hundreds at a time. More than 80, Hungarians  and 32, Germans  were forced to leave Slovakia, in a series of population transfers initiated by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference.
As a result of the Yalta Conference , Czechoslovakia came under the influence and later under direct occupation of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact , after a coup in [ citation needed ].
Czechoslovakia was never part of the Soviet Union and remained independent to a degree. The word "socialist" was dropped in the names of the two republics, i.
In November the federal parliament voted to dissolve the country officially on December 31, The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic went their separate ways after 1 January , an event sometimes called the Velvet Divorce.
On 1 January , Slovakia adopted the Euro as its national currency. The Slovak landscape is noted primarily for its mountainous nature, with the Carpathian Mountains extending across most of the northern half of the country.
The largest lowland is the fertile Danubian Lowland in the southwest, followed by the Eastern Slovak Lowland in the southeast.
They are divided into several parts. The Tatra mountain range is represented as one of the three hills on the coat of arms of Slovakia.
There are 9 national parks in Slovakia, they cover 6. Slovakia has hundreds of caves and caverns under its mountains, of which 30 are open to the public.
Most of the rivers stem in the Slovak mountains. The biggest volume of discharge in Slovak rivers is during spring , when the snow melts from the mountains.
The only exception is the Danube, whose discharge is the greatest during summer when the snow melts in the Alps. The Danube is the largest river that flows through Slovakia.
The Slovak climate lies between the temperate and continental climate zones with relatively warm summers and cold, cloudy and humid winters.
The weather differs from the mountainous north to the plains in the south. In Slovakia, there are four seasons , each season Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter lasts three months.
The dry continental air brings in the summer heat and winter frosts. In contrast, oceanic air brings rainfalls and reduces summer temperatures.
In the lowlands and valleys there is often fog, especially in winter. In Slovakia, the weather and climate in the spring is very unstable.
Showers or thunderstorms may occur because of the summer monsoon called Medardova kvapka Medard drop — 40 days of rain. Autumn in Slovakia starts on 23 September and is mostly characterised by wet weather and wind, although the first weeks can be very warm and sunny.
Late September and early October is a dry and sunny time of year so-called Indian Summer. In December and January it is usually snowing, these are the coldest months of the year.
At lower altitudes, snow does not stay the whole winter, it is changing into the thaw and frost. Slovakia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 19 May , and became a party to the convention on 25 August The biodiversity of Slovakia comprises animals such as annellids, arthropods, molluscs, nematodes and vertebrates , fungi Ascomycota , Basidiomycota , Chytridiomycota , Glomeromycota and Zygomycota , micro-organisms including Mycetozoa , and plants.
Over species of fungi have been recorded from Slovakia. The conservation status of non-lichen-forming fungi in Slovakia is not well documented, but there is a red list for its larger fungi.
Slovakia is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The last parliamentary elections were held on 5 March and two rounds of presidential elections took place on 15 and 29 March The Slovak head of state and the formal head of the executive is the president currently Andrej Kiska , though with very limited powers.
The president is elected by direct, popular vote under the two-round system for a five-year term. The prime minister is appointed by the president.
The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister. Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation.
The Constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September , and became effective 1 January It was amended in September to allow direct election of the president and again in February due to EU admission requirements.
The civil law system is based on Austro-Hungarian codes. Slovakia accepts the compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction with reservations.
Slovakia is a member of the United Nations since and participates in its specialized agencies. The country was, on 10 October , elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council from to Slovakia maintains diplomatic relations with countries, primarily through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
As of December , Slovakia maintained 90 missions abroad, including 64 embassies, seven missions to multilateral organisations, nine consulates-general, one consular office, one Slovak Economic and Cultural Office and eight Slovak Institutes.
The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 14, uniformed personnel. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo. From the army transformed into a fully professional organisation and compulsory military service was abolished.
Slovak Ground Forces are made up of two active mechanised infantry brigades. Training and support forces comprise a National Support Element Multifunctional Battalion, Transport Battalion, Repair Battalion , a garrison force of the capital city Bratislava, as well as a training battalion, and various logistics and communication and information bases.
Miscellaneous forces under the direct command of the General Staff include the 5th Special Forces Regiment. The US State Department in reported:.
The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas. The most significant human rights issues included incidents of interference with privacy; corruption; widespread discrimination against Roma minority; and security force violence against ethnic and racial minorities government actions and rhetoric did little to discourage.
The government investigated reports of abuses by members of the security forces and other government institutions, although some observers questioned the thoroughness of these investigations.
Some officials engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. Two former ministers were convicted of corruption during the year.
Human rights in Slovakia are guaranteed by the Constitution of Slovakia from the year and by multiple international laws signed in Slovakia between and As for administrative division , Slovakia is subdivided into 8 krajov singular — kraj , usually translated as "region" , each of which is named after its principal city.
Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since Their self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing or autonomous Regions sg.
The "kraje" are subdivided into many okresy sg. In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions.
The Slovak Republic continues exhibiting robust economic performance, with strong growth backed by a sound financial sector, low public debt and high international competitiveness drawing on large inward investment.
The country used to be dubbed the " Tatra Tiger ". Slovakia successfully transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy.
Major privatisations are completed, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen. The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and 3rd fastest in eurozone In , and with GDP growth of Slovakia adopted the Euro currency on 1 January as the 16th member of the Eurozone.
The euro in Slovakia was approved by the European commission on 7 May The Slovak koruna was revalued on 28 May to Slovakia is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly because of its low wages, low tax rates and well educated labour force.
In recent years, Slovakia has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. Slovakia became an aid provider at the end of The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering.
From electrical engineering companies, Foxconn has a factory at Nitra for LCD TV manufacturing, Samsung at Galanta for computer monitors and television sets manufacturing.
Today, Bratislava is the road, railway, waterway and airway hub. In , Slovakia produced a total of 28, GWh of electricity while at the same time consumed 28 GWh.
The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production - GWh meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing.
Slovakia imported electricity mainly from the Czech Republic 9 GWh — Nuclear energy accounts for After deactivating the last of the two reactors of the V1 block in , Slovakia instantly stopped being self-dependent in energy production.
It is scheduled for decommissioning in Two new reactors are under construction in Mochovce plant. The nuclear power production in Slovakia sometimes draws attention to Austrian green-energy activists who occasionally organise protests and block the borders between the two countries.
There are four main highways D1 to D4 and eight express ways R1 to R8. Most of them are still in the planning phase. It is located 9 kilometres 5.
It serves civil and governmental, scheduled and unscheduled domestic and international flights. The current runways support the landing of all common types of aircraft currently used.
The Port of Bratislava is one of the two international river ports in Slovakia. Slovakia features natural landscapes, mountains, caves , medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts.
More than 5,4 million tourists visited Slovakia in , and the most attractive destinations are the capital of Bratislava and the High Tatras.
Slovakia contains many castles, most of which are in ruins. A historical center with at least one square has been preserved in many towns. Historical centers have been going through restoration in recent years.
Historical churches can be found in virtually every village and town in Slovakia. The Basilica of St. The oldest sacral buildings in Slovakia stem from the Great Moravian period in the 9th century.
Very precious structures are the complete wooden churches of northern and northern-eastern Slovakia. Most were built from the 15th century onwards by Catholics , Lutherans and members of eastern-rite churches.
Dielo shop chain sells works of Slovak artists and craftsmen. These shops are mostly found in towns and cities.
Prices of imported products are generally the same as in the neighbouring countries, whereas prices of local products and services, especially food, are usually lower.
The Slovak Academy of Sciences has been the most important scientific and research institution in the country since Slovaks have made notable scientific and technical contributions during the history.
Slovakia is currently in the negotiation process of becoming a member of the European Space Agency. Observer status was granted in , when Slovakia signed the General Agreement on Cooperation  in which information about ongoing education programmes was shared and Slovakia was invited to various negotiations of the ESA.
Slovak research and development organizations can apply for funding of projects regarding space technologies advancement.
Slovakia will be obliged to set state budget inclusive ESA funding. According to the census,  the majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovaks Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority 8.
In Slovakia was estimated to have a total fertility rate of 1. The largest waves of Slovak emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The official language is Slovak , a member of the Slavic language family. Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions, and Rusyn is used in some parts of the Northeast.
Slovakia is ranked among the top EU countries regarding the knowledge of foreign languages. The best known foreign language in Slovakia is Czech.
Eurostat report also shows that The deaf community uses the Slovak Sign Language. The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion.
After further reductions due to postwar emigration and assimilation, only about 2, Jews remain today 0.
The education system consists of elementary school which is divided into two parts, the first grade age 6—10 and the second grade age 10—15 which is finished by taking nationwide testing called Monitor, from Slovak language and math.
Parents may apply for social assistance for a child that is studying on an elementary school or a high-school. If approved, the state provides basic study necessities for the child.
Schools provide books to all their students with usual exceptions of books for studying a foreign language and books which require taking notes in them, which are mostly present at the first grade of elementary school.
After finishing a high school, students can go to university and are highly encouraged to do so. Slovakia has a wide range of universities.
The biggest university is Comenius University , established in Most universities in Slovakia are public funded, where anyone can apply.
Every citizen has a right to free education in public schools. Slovakia has several privately funded universities, however public universities consistently score better in the ranking than their private counterparts.
Universities have different criteria for accepting students. Eine andere Folge war die Errichtung zahlreicher Burgen.
Sie wurde nach dessen Tod jedoch geschlossen. Der seit laufenden Reformation in Ungarn wurde im Jahrhundert durch die Gegenreformation entgegengewirkt.
Jahrhunderts begann die Nationale Wiedergeburt der Slowaken. Seit Anfang des Der im August gegen den Einmarsch der Wehrmacht und die slowakische Kollaborationsregierung gerichtete Aufstand von Teilen der slowakischen Armee wurde nach zwei Monaten niedergeschlagen.
Januar friedlich erfolgte. Sein Nachfolger wurde Parteikollege Peter Pellegrini. Die Slowakei ist laut der Verfassung von eine Republik , die eine parlamentarische Demokratie darstellt.
Er teilt seine Macht mit dem Parlament. Das Parlament kann seinerseits jederzeit der Regierung oder einem ihrer Mitglieder das Vertrauen absprechen.
SNS und Ungarn z. Einen Wahlerfolg verbuchen konnte auch das Lager der Nationalisten. Mittelschulen, Gesundheitswesen und Infrastruktur.
Das Heer hat derzeit 22 Kampfpanzer. Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von umgerechnet 37,0 Mrd. US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von umgerechnet 34,8 Mrd.
Mit dem Amtsantritt der Regierung Dzurinda wurde ein stark wirtschaftsliberaler Kurs eingeschlagen. Von besonderer Bedeutung waren die Sparprogramme der Jahre und Im selben Jahr gab Jaguar Land Rover bekannt, sich ebenfalls mit einer Fabrik in Nitra niederlassen zu wollen, deren erste Fahrzeuge vom Band laufen sollen.
Im Jahr trat die Slowakei dem Schengen-Abkommen bei, am 1. Januar wurde die Slowakei Teil der Eurozone. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt pro Kopf betrug im selben Jahr Die Breitspurstrecke kommt von der Ukraine und endet in Haniska.
Die Instandhaltung ist dabei auf drei Ebenen geteilt: Ordnung jeweils von den Selbstverwaltungsgebieten. Die Hauptverbindungen verlaufen hierbei parallel zu den Eisenbahnen.
In der Slowakei bestehen vier wichtige Autobahnverbindungen:. Die Autobahn D2 80 Kilometer ist auf slowakischer und tschechischer Seite fertiggestellt.
Die Autobahn D4 bzw. Einzige wichtige Binnenschifffahrtsroute ist die Donau. Die Eltern von Andy Warhol sind in der Slowakei geboren.
Einige Namen, die auch im Ausland bekannt sind: Jahrhundert entstandenen, neuen Liedgattungen unterschieden.
Die auf das Diese modalen Tonfolgen gingen in unterschiedliche Liedgattungen der Volks- und Kunstmusik ein.
Thematisch folgen die neuen Lieder auf die im Jahrhundert entstandene Liebeslyrik, ferner handeln sie von sozialen Themen aus der Schicht der Handwerker, Soldaten und Auswanderer.
Zu Beginn des Zur historischen Schichtung der Volksliedtradition tritt die stilistische Unterscheidung in vier Regionen: Jahrhundert war der gregorianische Gesang vorherrschend, im Jahrhundert brachten deutsche Siedler ein Repertoire von mehrstimmigen geistlichen Liedern mit.
Jahrhundert die Barockmusik deutscher Komponisten. Die Stilepoche der Klassik dauerte in der Slowakei bis Jahrhundert geriet die Musik Ende des Jahrhunderts in den Dienst nationaler Bestrebungen, wodurch slowakische Volksliedmelodien eine neue Bedeutung erhielten.
Damit ging eine schrittweise Abkehr von der Doktrin des Sozialistischen Realismus einher. Der Film Obchod na korze deutsch: Jahrhundert bedeutendste slowakische Filmregisseur ist Juraj Jakubisko.
Bathory wurde von A Thousand Years of Solitude , der in die Kinos kam. Er behandelt die Geschichte der Slawen im 9. Die Slowakei schied nach einer 1: Der slowakische Kanute Peter Hochschorner ist dreimaliger Olympiasieger.
Nichtstaatliche arbeitsfreie Tage sind der 6. Mai Tag der Arbeit , der 8. November Allerheiligen , der Dezember Heiliger Abend , der Dezember Erster Weihnachtstag , der Dieser Artikel behandelt die entstandene Slowakische Republik , zur Slowakei in den Jahren bis siehe Slowakischer Staat.
Geomorphologische Einteilung der Slowakei. Religionen in der Slowakei. Liste der Hochschulen in der Slowakei.
Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin undp. Schulalltag und nationale Integration in Ungarn. Der Link wurde automatisch als defekt markiert.
The Encyclopaedia of Slovakia and the Slovaks , S. European bison without borders. Geraadpleegd op 14 oktober Mai , abgerufen am Regime transition and the emergence of ethnic minorities.
Jacques Bertrand, Oded Haklai Hrsg. Democratization and Ethnic Minorities. State, Ethnicity, Indigenism and Citizenship.
World Scientific Publishing, Singapure , S. Cambridge University Press, , S. Demokratischer Patriotismus oder ethnischer Nationalismus in Ost-Mitteleuropa?
August , abgerufen am 1. Memento des Originals vom Dejiny Slovenska , S. Wolfgang Hermann Fritze u.Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Seither gab es bis in der Slowakei keine einzige slowakische Mittelschule mehr. September im Internet Archive In: Zahlen Daten Fakten, Fischer, Eishokey news, 8. Die musikalische Moderne der ersten Hälfte des Zur deutschen Übersetzung der slowakischen Verfassung vgl. Sie wurde das erste Mal vor der Burg von Bratislava am 3. Das Verhältnis zum Nachbarn Polen kann als gut und frei von Konflikten bezeichnet werden. Es gibt noch einige Stellen, an münchen vs hamburg Informationen fehlen. Diese begünstigten die Blütezeit des oberungarischen Bergbaus im November wurde durch eine Verfassungsänderung zwei Landesteilen der Tschechoslowakei Autonomie und eine eigene Landesregierung gewährt: Oktober 72 Kreisbehörden wieder eingeführt. Liste der Flüsse in der Slowakei. Zu Beginn des Märzonline auf: